There are a variety of feeding spoons and syringes on the market and there is no right or wrong choice when it comes to feeding equipment for hand rearing. However you need to make sure the product is safe and that it’s the right size for your bird. Some feeding equipment, like crop needles, require experience as they can be used incorrectly which can result in heartache! Every option has its pro’s and con’s, but to make the choice easier, we have given you the low down below!
Crop needles speed up the task of feeding young birds tremendously, they cut down waste, make feeding at the right temperature easier and ensure more accurate volumes of feed are delivered. Crop needles even eliminate the ugly dried crust of food that accumulates around a birds beak from spoon or syringe feeding. HOWEVER it is only recommended that you attempt using a crop needle if you are familiar and confident with the technique, as they require some experience and know how to be used safely and correctly. If you would like to find out more about how to crop needle, check out our You Tube video, or consult with your local veterinarian.
Baby birds can also be syringe fed directly into the mouth without any attachments at all. Again, while this is quite messy and does take some time, bonding can be better with the birds. Many breeders employ this method, however there is an increased risk of birds inhaling food if they are fed too quickly. Standard disposable syringes can be used and the ‘Basik’ brand is by far the best choice in this area. Reusable, perspex feeding syringes are also available from Vetafarm. These can attach to crop needles and the Ezy Feeder or be used for direct feeding. These reusable syringes have the advantage of being easier to handle, easier to clean and obviously as the name states, they are reusable!
The Ezy Feeder was designed by veterinarian Dr Tony Gestier and is used in a similar manner as the feeding spoon. The Ezy Feeder is a stainless steel spoon with a tube attachment that connects to a syringe. The Ezy Feeder offers the advantages of using a syringe with the simplicity of the spoon. Ezy Feeders allow for accurate, low mess feeding and the ability to keep food warm for the duration of the feed. A great compromise for those that want a better system than the standard feeding spoon but don’t have the technical expertise required to handle a crop needle.
Many people believe that a closer bond is built between bird and person using this method. Which makes sense due to the extend amounts of time you will be spending with the babies during feeding. Although time consuming, feeding spoons are very easy to use. Vetafarm has a simple feeding spoon for those who need a low tech feeding system.
Raising babies from day 1
Hand raising babies from day one is grueling, time consuming and all in all, quite a difficult task. Don’t be fooled into thinking that it is just like raising babies from pin feather stage, this thinking will give you dead babies and a broken heart. The word neonate refers to a baby that is in absolute infancy and is completely dependent on it’s parents. There are three core problems that we need to address when dealing with neonates before we look at anything else, overcoming these are the key to success.
Neonates do not have a functioning immune system – full stop. Essentially the neonate is at the complete mercy of any bacteria that enters the gut as they have very limited defense systems. Deaths from bacterial infections at neonate stage are extremely common and can occur as quickly as 24 hours after the baby is exposed to the bacteria. Treatment is really difficult with babies of this age, as antibiotics still rely on the body’s immune system to gain the upper hand. Prevention however, is very effective and simple – good hygiene practices and common sense are all that is required. Using a poorly cleaned feeding utensil that has been used on older babies is one sure way to introduce a bacteria that could potentially wipe out every neonate in your brooder. Be smart and fastidious with your hygiene and if you really need to use the same feeding utensils for a range of babies of different ages, disinfect thoroughly and feed your neonates BEFORE your older babies.
A complex way of saying that neonates cannot control their body temperature. Much like a premature baby, neonatal birds are absolutely reliant on their environment to be both the right temperature and the right humidity. Too cold and a neonate will become hypothermic, too hot or too dry and they will dehydrate, too wet and they will absorb too much moisture – the result of any one of these imbalances can be death. Humidity and temperature are controlled by your brooder, if you cannot afford a brooder or do not have a brooder, do not attempt to raise neonates. Where you will get away with a cardboard box and a light bulb with some birds at pinfeather stage, you won’t get anywhere when raising babies 3 days old or younger, they simply rely too heavily on the correct environmental conditions and these CANNOT be achieved without spending money. The ideal conditions and a good starting point for neonates is a brooder temperature of about 38-39°C.
After the ordeal of actually hatching from the egg, many neonates are fatigued and more importantly, dehydrated. It is important to get two things correct when dealing with dehydration. Brooder humidity is absolutely crucial and again, a good quality brooder is essential here. The ideal brooder humidity for most species is about 70% relative humidity. The second important step to preventing/combating dehydration will be covered in the next section.
Foods and fluids from Day 1
Once the 3 core principals covered above are taken care of, the next matter that requires attention is food and fluids. Getting the correct food and fluids into a neonatal baby in the first 7 days and in particular, the first 24hrs is imperative.
Once the neonate has finished hatching and is clear of the egg, the biggest danger we have is dehydration. Actual food is not a concern at this stage as the baby continues to feed on the remnants of the internal yolk sac. A “starter solution” of 20ml Spark Liquid mixed with 1lt distilled or boiled water, along with 5g of Probotic should be mixed and fed drop-wise (1-2 drops) via syringe to the beak every 2-3 hours until the first dropping (the meconium) is passed. This solution will supply everything the bird needs in the first 24 hours while the digestive system begins to function. Although some may disagree, Vetafarm do not feel overnight feeds are necessary, even at this age. Simply administer your last feed at 10-11pm and then the first feed of the day at 5-6am. Note: It is important that the “starter solution” be fed at the same temperature as the brooder, 39°C.
Now the meconium has been passed we should be through the first 24 hours of life and it is time to very slowly introduce solids. This last statement can be misleading as we initially start the process by making a “Neocare Tea” rather than a solid food. The “Neocare Tea” is made by adding approx 5g of Neocare in 100ml of the “starter solution” mentioned above, mixing thoroughly with a fork and leaving to stand for 15 minutes. We then simply use a syringe to suck a small amount of the “Tea” off the top of this concoction and feed very small amounts (start with as little as 0.1ml and progress up to 0.5ml over a two day period) by syringe warmed to 39 °C every 2-3 hours as above.
After day 3 we can very gradually start to thicken our “Neocare Tea” over a further 3 day period until we reach “normal” consistency. We no longer need to wait for 15 minutes to extract the liquid from the very top of the formula and can now leave our mix stand for 3-4 minutes and feed as required. The same rules for food temperature apply to the thicker formula, however after day 7, plain distilled or boiled water can be used in place of the “starter solution”. Remember to always mix your formula with a fork to ensure an even consistency and allow to stand for at least 3 minutes to allow full absorption of water into the food and correct feeding consistency to be achieved. At day 7, we should be feeding a formula at a normal consistency. This consistency will be continued up until the point the bird is weaned. The best way to measure the correct formula consistency at this point through to weaning is to pick up a small amount with your mixing fork. If the formula just drips through the prongs you are spot on!
Good luck and happy hatching!
Lizards make fantastic pets and one of the draw cards for many people is that keeping them in captivity is easy. Or is it?
Let’s start with the two most popular species of lizards kept in captivity- Blue Tongue lizards and Bearded Dragons. Both of these reptiles make great pet choices, however people are often misinformed about the best diet for these lizards when kept as pets.
METABOLIC BONE DISEASE (MBD)
Lizards being fed an incorrect diet can develop serious health problems, the most common being Metabolic Bone Disease. MBD is not new; it has been around for many years in the reptile world and is commonly thought of as a calcium deficiency. However, research in the last 5 years has shown that a lack of calcium is not the only cause of MBD in reptiles. In fact the causes for MBD are complex and multi-factorial – though imbalances in the diet remain THE major contributing factor.
- Inability to stand and move properly
- Tremors and muscle twitching
- Soft jaw and tooth disease
- Leg, spine and tail twists and bends
- Fractures and broken bones
- Eventually weight loss and death
It is important to keep in mind that these symptoms are caused by an incorrect diet, lack of adequate care and exercise. The only way to treat and prevent MBD in lizards is to get these few simple things right. It is actually quite easy to provide a balanced diet for lizards. It needs to contain vitamins, minerals, calcium, fat, protein and amino acids. BUT most importantly of all, the diet needs to be balanced.
NOM NOM OMNIVORES
Both blue tongues and bearded dragons are classed as OMNIVORES. They eat a variety of different foods including both insects, meat matter, and fruit and vegetables. Blue tongues are classified as opportunistic omnivores. They will generally eat most things they come across, with a favourite being snails! This can become a problem in captivity, because they will usually eat just about anything that goes into their food bowls, even if it is not particularly good for them – snails all day every day? Yep, they will take the opportunity!
Bearded Dragons are also omnivores, but they tend to have a diet higher in protein when they are younger, which gradually changes to a diet higher in vegetation and fibre as they reach maturity. Bearded dragons also develop problems in a captive environment, as they simply LOVE live food and many people find it easier just to feed them what they like – not necessarily the best thing for the animal!
FORMULATED DIET OR SUPPLEMENTED LIVE FOOD
There are two main options for providing your lizard with a balanced diet that will ensure they remain in peak health – without breaking your bank or your patience.
We believe the easiest way to achieve this is to use a formulated diet, like Vetafarm’s Lizard Food. Being made with fresh Australian ingredients with essential vitamins, minerals and amino acids in perfect balance, Lizard Food is suitable for both Blue Tongues and Bearded Dragons.
If you prefer to feed a live food diet, it MUST be supplemented. Crickets and meal worms are high in fat and protein, with differing amounts of chiton (exo skeleton) depending on the type and age
of the insect fed. Chiton does not contain any nutrition. While fat and protein are important for rapid growth without the addition of vitamins, minerals and calcium problems arise as a reptiles bones struggle to develop at the same pace as the rest of the body’s tissues and organs.
This makes supplementing a live food diet absolutely critical if we are to avoid deformities and other health issues caused by MBD.
There are two ways you can supplement a live food diet- either by gut load or dusting. Vetafarm prefers dusting as opposed to gut loading as it can be difficult to ensure the insects have eaten enough gut load to be beneficial. Vetafarm’s Multical Dust is a great dusting product to use, as it is the world’s first all in one powder, containing vitamins, minerals and calcium. In our opinion, live food should be dusted EVERY feed or at least every second feed.
Check out our video below for a quick demonstration on how easy it is to dust live food. It is super simple!
Whichever way you decide to feed your lizard, it is also important to provide fresh fruit and vegetables as part of the daily diet. Adult Bearded Dragons in particular rely on daily access to fruit and vegetables, being prone to obesity issues caused by high fat, high protein diets once they have finished growing.
Leafy Dark greens and red vegetables usually contain the most nutrition, so it’s a good idea to use these as the bulk of your mix. A small amount of Multical Dust can also be used in a sprinkle over vegetables.
Nutrition plays a major part in MBD in reptiles, however lighting and husbandry are important as well. Be sure you research the particular tank and lighting requirements for your lizard. You can also read our article “Keeping a Baby Bearded Dragon” which explains a basic tank setup.